Wx/org/iaea/GSR3/Section/4_Emergency_0.md
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H.TiEMERGENCY EXPOSURE SITUATIONS
H.1.TiSCOPE
1.secThe requirements for emergency exposure situations established in Section 4 apply to activities undertaken in preparedness for and in response to a nuclear or radiological emergency.
H.1.Sec{H.1.Ti}
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H.2.TiGENERIC REQUIREMENTS
Req.43.TiRequirement 43: Emergency management system
Req.43.TextThe government shall ensure that an integrated and coordinated emergency management system is established and maintained.
2.secThe government shall ensure that an emergency management system is established and maintained on the territories and within the jurisdiction of the State for the purposes of emergency response to protect human life, health and the environment in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency.
3.secThe emergency management system shall be designed to be commensurate with the results of a hazard assessment [15] and to enable an effective emergency response to reasonably foreseeable events (including very low probability events) in connection with facilities or activities.
4.secThe emergency management system shall be integrated, to the extent practicable, into an all-hazards emergency management system.
5.0.secThe emergency management system shall provide for essential elements at the scene, and at the local, national and international level, as appropriate, including the following [15]:
5.1.secHazard assessment;
5.2.secDevelopment and exercising of emergency plans and emergency procedures;
5.3.secClear allocation of responsibilities to persons and organizations having roles in the arrangements for emergency preparedness and response;
5.4.secArrangements for efficient and effective cooperation and coordination among organizations;
5.5.secReliable communication, including public information;
5.6.secOptimized protection strategies for the implementation and the termination of measures for the protection of members of the public who could be subject to exposure in an emergency, including relevant considerations for protection of the environment;
5.7.secArrangements for the protection of emergency workers;
5.8.secEducation and training, including training in radiation protection, of all persons involved in emergency response and exercising of emergency plans and emergency procedures;
5.9.secPreparations for the transition from emergency exposure situation to existing exposure situation;
5.10.secArrangements for the medical response and the public health response in an emergency;
5.11.secProvision for individual monitoring and environmental monitoring and for dose assessment;
5.12.secInvolvement of relevant parties and interested parties.
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6.secThe government shall ensure the coordination of its emergency arrangements and capabilities with the relevant international emergency arrangements.
Req.43.Sec{Req.43.Ti}
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H.3.TiPUBLIC EXPOSURE
Req.44.TiRequirement 44: Preparedness and response for an emergency
Req.44.TextThe government shall ensure that protection strategies are developed, justified and optimized at the planning stage, and that emergency response is undertaken by their timely implementation.
7.secThe government shall ensure that protection strategies are developed, justified and optimized at the planning stage, by using scenarios based on the hazard assessment, for avoiding deterministic effects and reducing the likelihood of stochastic effects due to public exposure.
8.0.secDevelopment of a protection strategy shall include, but shall not be limited to, the following three successive steps:
NoteDifferent numbering (1), (2) of the subsections.
8.1.secA reference level expressed in terms of residual dose shall be set, typically an effective dose in the range of 20–100 mSv, that includes dose contributions via all exposure pathways. The protection strategy shall include planning for residual doses to be as low as reasonably achievable below the reference level, and the strategy shall be optimized.
8.2.secOn the basis of the outcome of the optimization of the protection strategy, using the reference level, generic criteria for particular protective actions and other response actions, expressed in terms of projected dose or of dose that has been received, shall be developed. If the numerical values of the generic criteria47 are exceeded, those protective actions and other response actions, either individually or in combination, shall be implemented.
8.3.secOnce the protection strategy has been optimized and a set of generic criteria has been developed, pre-established operational criteria for initiating the different parts of an emergency plan, primarily for the initial phase, shall be derived from the generic criteria. Operational criteria, such as on-scene conditions, operational intervention levels and emergency action levels, shall be expressed in terms of parameters or observable conditions. Arrangements shall be established in advance to revise these operational criteria, as appropriate, in an emergency, with account taken of the prevailing conditions as they evolve.
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9.secEach protective action shall be justified in the context of the protection strategy.
10.secThe government shall ensure that in making arrangements for emergency preparedness and response it is taken into consideration that emergencies are dynamic, that decisions taken early in the emergency response may influence subsequent actions, and that different geographical areas may have different prevailing conditions and there may be different requirements for the response.{Footnote_47} Table A–1 in the Annex (p. 380) provides a set of generic criteria for use in the protection strategy that are compatible with reference levels within a range of 20–100 mSv, and provides further details for specific actions in different time frames.
11.0.secThe government shall ensure that the response in an emergency exposure situation is undertaken by the timely implementation of arrangements for emergency response, including but not limited to:
11.1.secPromptly taking protective actions and other response actions to avoid severe deterministic effects on the basis of observed conditions and, if possible, before any exposure occurs. Dose levels required to be used as generic criteria for preventing severe deterministic effects are given in Table IV.1 of Schedule IV (p. 372);
11.2.secAssessing the effectiveness of the protective actions and other response actions taken and modifying them as appropriate;
11.3.secComparing residual doses with the applicable reference level, giving priority to those groups for whom residual doses exceed the reference level;
11.4.secImplementing further protection strategies as necessary, on the basis of prevailing conditions and available information.
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H.3.Sec{H.3.Ti}
{Req.44.Sec}
Req.44.Sec{Req.44.Ti}
{Req.44.Text}
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H.4.TiEXPOSURE OF EMERGENCY WORKERS
Req.45.TiRequirement 45: Arrangements for controlling the exposure of emergency workers
Req.45.TextThe government shall establish a programme for managing, controlling and recording the doses received in an emergency by emergency workers.
12.secThe government shall establish a programme for managing, controlling and recording the doses received in an emergency by emergency workers, which shall be implemented by response organizations and employers.
13.secThe response organization and employers responsible for ensuring compliance with the requirements in paras 4.14–4.19 shall be specified in the emergency plan.
14.secIn an emergency exposure situation, the relevant requirements for occupational exposure in planned exposure situations (paras 3.69–3.116) shall be applied for emergency workers, in accordance with a graded approach, except as required in para. 4.15.
15.0.secResponse organizations and employers shall ensure that no emergency worker is subject to an exposure in an emergency in excess of 50 mSv other than:
15.1.secFor the purposes of saving life or preventing serious injury;
15.2.secWhen undertaking actions to prevent severe deterministic effects and actions to prevent the development of catastrophic conditions that could significantly affect people and the environment; or
15.3.secWhen undertaking actions to avert a large collective dose.
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16.secIn the exceptional circumstances specified in para. 4.15, response organizations and employers shall make all reasonable efforts to keep doses to emergency workers below the values set out in Table IV.2 of Schedule IV (p. 373). In addition, emergency workers undertaking actions as a result of which their doses could approach or exceed the values set out in Table IV.2 of Schedule IV shall do so only when the expected benefits to others would clearly outweigh the risks to the emergency workers.
17.secResponse organizations and employers shall ensure that emergency workers who undertake actions in which the doses received might exceed 50 mSv do so voluntarily{Footnote_48}; that they have been clearly and comprehensively informed in advance of the associated health risks, as well as of available measures for protection and safety; and that they are, to the extent possible, trained in the actions that they may be required to take.
18.secResponse organizations and employers shall take all reasonable steps to assess and record the doses received in an emergency by emergency workers. Information on the doses received and information concerning the associated health risks shall be communicated to the workers involved.
19.secWorkers who receive doses in an emergency exposure situation shall not normally be precluded from incurring further occupational exposure. However, qualified medical advice shall be obtained before any further occupational exposure if such a worker has received a dose exceeding 200 mSv or at the request of the worker.
H.4.Sec{H.4.Ti}
{Req.45.Sec}
Req.45.Sec{Req.45.Ti}
{Req.45.Text}
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H.5.TiTRANSITION FROM AN EMERGENCY EXPOSURE SITUATION TO AN EXISTING EXPOSURE SITUATION
Req.46.TiRequirement 46: Arrangements for the transition from an emergency exposure situation to an existing exposure situation
Req.46.TextThe government shall ensure that arrangements are in place and are implemented as appropriate for the transition from an emergency exposure situation to an existing exposure situation.
20.secThe government shall ensure that, as part of its overall emergency preparedness, arrangements are in place for the transition from an emergency exposure situation to an existing exposure situation. The arrangements shall take into account that different geographical areas may undergo the transition at different times. The responsible authority shall take the decision to make the transition to an existing exposure situation. The transition shall be made in a coordinated and orderly manner, by making any necessary transfer of responsibilities between organizations, with the involvement of relevant authorities and interested parties.
21.secWorkers undertaking work such as repairs to plant and buildings or activities for radioactive waste management, or undertaking remedial actions for the decontamination of the site and surrounding areas, shall be subject to the relevant requirements for occupational exposure in planned exposure situations stated in Section 3.
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Footnote_4747
Footnote_4848