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H.TiINTRODUCTION
H.1.TiBACKGROUND
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1.1.secThis General Safety Requirements publication, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (hereinafter referred to as ‘these Standards’), is issued in the IAEA Safety Standards Series. It supersedes International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources issued in 1996 (the ‘BSS of 1996’){Foot1}. Section 1 does not include requirements, but explains the context, concepts and principles for the requirements, which are established in Sections 2–5 and in the schedules.
1.2.secRadioactivity is a natural phenomenon and natural sources of radiation are features of the environment. Radiation{Foot2} and radioactive material may also be of artificial origin and they have many beneficial applications, including uses in medicine, industry, agriculture and research as well as for nuclear power generation. The radiation risks to people and the environment that may arise from the use of radiation and radioactive material must be assessed and must be controlled by means of the application of standards of safety{Foot3}.
1.3.secExposure of human tissues or organs to radiation can induce the death of cells on a scale that can be extensive enough to impair the function of the exposed tissue or organ. Effects of this type, which are called ‘deterministic effects’, are clinically observable in an individual only if the radiation dose exceeds a certain threshold level. Above this threshold level of dose, a deterministic effect is more severe for a higher dose.
1.4.secExposure to radiation can also induce the non-lethal transformation of cells, which may still retain their capacity for cell division. The human body’s immune system is very effective at detecting and destroying abnormal cells. However, there is a possibility that the non-lethal transformation of a cell could lead, after a latency period, to cancer in the individual exposed, if the cell is a somatic cell; or such a transformation of a cell could lead to hereditary effects, if the cell is a germ cell. Such effects are called ‘stochastic’ effects. For the purposes of these Standards, it is assumed that the probability of the eventual occurrence of a stochastic effect is proportional to the dose received, with no threshold. The ‘detriment-adjusted nominal risk coefficient of dose’, which includes the risks of all cancers and the risks of hereditary effects, is 5% per sievert [2]. This risk coefficient may need to be adjusted as new scientific knowledge becomes available.
1.5.secThe requirements established in these Standards are governed by the objectives, concepts and principles of the Fundamental Safety Principles [1]. These Standards draw upon information derived from the experience of States in applying the requirements of the BSS of 1996 {Foot4}, and from experience in many States in the use of radiation and nuclear techniques. These Standards draw upon extensive research and development work by national and international scientific and engineering organizations on the health effects of radiation exposure and on measures and techniques for the safe design and use of radiation sources. These Standards also take account of the findings of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) [3] and the Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) [2]. As scientific considerations are only part of the basis for making decisions on protection and safety, these Standards also address the use of value judgements relating to the management of risks.
H.1.1.TiThe system of protection and safety
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1.6.secAs stated in the Fundamental Safety Principles [1], “The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation.” This objective must be achieved without unduly limiting the operation of facilities or the conduct of activities that give rise to radiation risks{Foot5}. Therefore, the system of protection and safety aims to assess, manage and control exposure to radiation so that radiation risks, including risks of health effects and risks to the environment, are reduced to the extent reasonably achievable.
1.7.0.secThese Standards are based on the following safety principles stated in the Fundamental Safety Principles [1]:
1.7.1.TiPrinciple 1: Responsibility for safety
1.7.1.secThe prime responsibility for safety must rest with the person or organization responsible for facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks.
1.7.2.TiPrinciple 2: Role of government
1.7.2.secAn effective legal and governmental framework for safety, including an independent regulatory body, must be established and sustained.
1.7.3.TiPrinciple 3: Leadership and management for safety
1.7.3.secEffective leadership and management for safety must be established and sustained in organizations concerned with, and facilities and activities that give rise to, radiation risks.
1.7.4.TiPrinciple 4: Justification of facilities and activities
1.7.4.secFacilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks must yield an overall benefit.
1.7.5.TiPrinciple 5: Optimization of protection
1.7.5.secProtection must be optimized to provide the highest level of safety that can reasonably be achieved.
1.7.6.TiPrinciple 6: Limitation of risks to individuals
1.7.6.secMeasures for controlling radiation risks must ensure that no individual bears an unacceptable risk of harm.
1.7.7.TiPrinciple 7: Protection of present and future generations
1.7.7.secPeople and the environment, present and future, must be protected against radiation risks.
1.7.8.TiPrinciple 8: Prevention of accidents
1.7.8.secAll practical efforts must be made to prevent and mitigate nuclear or radiation accidents.
1.7.9.TiPrinciple 9: Emergency preparedness and response
1.7.9.secArrangements must be made for emergency preparedness and response for nuclear or radiation incidents.
1.7.10.TiPrinciple 10: Protective actions to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks
1.7.10.secProtective actions to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks must be justified and optimized.
1.7.90.TiThe three general principles of radiation protection, which concern justification, optimization of protection and application of dose limits, are expressed in Safety Principles 4, 5, 6 and also 10 [1].
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1.8.secThe prime responsibility for safety must rest with the person or organization responsible for facilities and activities{Foot6} that give rise to radiation risks [1]. Other parties also bear certain responsibilities. For instance, suppliers of radiation generators and radioactive sources have responsibilities in relation to their design and manufacture and operating instructions for their safe use. In the case of medical exposures, because of the medical setting in which such exposures occur, primary responsibility for protection and safety for patients lies with the health professional responsible for administration of the radiation dose, who is referred to in these Standards as the ‘radiological medical practitioner’. Other types of health professional may be involved in the preparation for, and the conduct of, radiological procedures, and each type has specific responsibilities, as established in these Standards.
1.9.secA properly established governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety provides for the regulation of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks. There is a hierarchy of responsibilities within this framework, from governments to regulatory bodies to the organizations responsible for, and the persons engaged in, activities involving radiation exposure. The government is responsible for the adoption within its national legal system of such legislation, regulations, and standards and measures as may be necessary to fulfil all its national and international obligations effectively, and for the establishment of an independent regulatory body. In some cases, more than one governmental organization may have the functions of a regulatory body for activities within their jurisdictions relating to the control of radiation and radioactive material.
1.10.secBoth the government and the regulatory body have important responsibilities in establishing the regulatory framework for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of radiation, including establishing standards. These Standards require the government to ensure that there is coordination of government departments and agencies that have responsibilities for protection and safety, including the regulatory body, and of departments and agencies concerned with public health, the environment, labour, mining, science and technology, agriculture and education. Standards have to be developed by means of consultation with those who are or who could be required to apply them.
1.11.secThe government is also responsible for ensuring, as necessary, that provision is made for support services, such as education and training, and technical services. If these services are not available within the State, other mechanisms to provide them may have to be considered. The regulatory body is responsible for carrying out its required regulatory functions, such as the establishment of requirements and guidelines, the authorization and inspection of facilities and activities, and the enforcement of legislative and regulatory provisions.
1.12.secLeadership in safety matters has to be demonstrated at the highest levels in an organization, and safety has to be achieved and maintained by means of an effective management system. This system has to integrate all elements of management so that requirements for protection and safety are established and applied coherently with other requirements, including those for health, human performance, quality, protection of the environment and security, together with economic considerations. The application of the management system also has to ensure the promotion of safety culture, the regular assessment of safety performance and the application of lessons learned from experience. Safety culture includes individual and collective commitment to safety on the part of the leadership, the management and personnel at all levels. The term ‘management system’ reflects and includes the concept of ‘quality control’ (controlling the quality of products) and its evolution through ‘quality assurance’ (the system for ensuring the quality of products) and ‘quality management system’ (the system for managing quality).
1.13.secThe operation of facilities or the conduct of activities that introduce a new source of radiation, that change exposures or that change the likelihood of exposures has to be justified in the sense that the detriments that may be caused are outweighed by the individual and societal benefits that are expected. The comparison of detriments and benefits often goes beyond the consideration of protection and safety, and involves the consideration of economic, societal and environmental factors also.
1.14.secThe application of the justification principle to medical exposures requires a special approach. As an overarching justification of medical exposures, it is accepted that the use of radiation in medicine does more good than harm. However, at the next level, there is a need for generic justification, to be carried out by the health authority in conjunction with appropriate professional bodies, of a given radiological procedure. This applies to the justification of new technologies and techniques as they evolve. For the final level of justification, the application of the radiological procedure to a given individual has to be considered. The specific objectives of the exposure, the clinical circumstances and the characteristics of the individual involved have to be taken into account by means of referral guidelines developed by professional bodies and the health authority.
1.15.secThe optimization of protection and safety, when applied to the exposure of workers and members of the public, and carers and comforters of patients undergoing radiological procedures, is a process for ensuring that the likelihood and magnitude of exposures and the number of individuals exposed are as low as reasonably achievable, with economic, societal and environmental factors taken into account. This means that the level of protection would be the best possible under the prevailing circumstances. Optimization is a prospective and iterative process that requires both qualitative and quantitative judgements to be made.
1.16.secAs is the case with justification, the application of the optimization principle to the medical exposure of patients, and to that of volunteers as part of a programme of biomedical research, requires a special approach. Too low a radiation dose could be as bad as too high a radiation dose, in that the consequence could be that a cancer is not cured or the images obtained are not of suitable diagnostic quality. It is of paramount importance that the medical exposure leads to the required outcome.
1.17.secFor planned exposure situations, exposures and risks are subject to control to ensure that the specified dose limits for occupational exposure and those for public exposure are not exceeded, and optimization is applied to attain the desired level of protection and safety.
1.18.0.secAll practical efforts must be made to prevent and mitigate nuclear or radiological accidents. The most harmful consequences arising from facilities and activities have come from the loss of control over a nuclear reactor core, nuclear chain reaction, radioactive source or other source of radiation. Consequently, to ensure that the likelihood of an accident having harmful consequences is extremely low, measures have to be taken:
1.18.1.sec— To prevent the occurrence of failures or abnormal conditions (including breaches of security) that could lead to such a loss of control;
1.18.2.sec— To prevent the escalation of any such failures or abnormal conditions that do occur;
1.18.3.sec— To prevent the loss of, or the loss of control over, a radioactive source or other source of radiation.
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1.19.0.secArrangements must be made for emergency preparedness and response for nuclear or radiological incidents. The primary goals of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency are:
1.19.1.sec— To ensure that arrangements are in place for an effective response at the scene and, as appropriate, at the local, regional, national and international levels, to a nuclear or radiation emergency;
1.19.2.sec— To ensure that, for reasonably foreseeable incidents, radiation risks would be minor;
1.19.3.sec— For any incidents that do occur, to take practical measures to mitigate any consequences for human life and health and the environment.
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H.1.2.TiTypes of exposure situation
1.20.0.secFor the purpose of establishing practical requirements for protection and safety, these Standards distinguish between three different types of exposure situation: planned exposure situations, emergency exposure situations and existing exposure situations [2]. Together, these three types of exposure situation cover all situations of exposure for which these Standards apply:
1.20.1.secA planned exposure situation is a situation of exposure that arises from the planned operation of a source or from a planned activity that results in an exposure due to a source. Since provision for protection and safety can be made before embarking on the activity concerned, the associated exposures and their likelihood of occurrence can be restricted from the outset. The primary means of controlling exposure in planned exposure situations is by good design of facilities, equipment and operating procedures, and by training. In planned exposure situations, exposure at some level can be expected to occur. If exposure is not expected to occur with certainty, but could result from an accident or from an event or a sequence of events that may occur but is not certain to occur, this is referred to as ‘potential exposure’.
1.20.2.secAn emergency exposure situation is a situation of exposure that arises as a result of an accident, a malicious act or any other unexpected event, and requires prompt action in order to avoid or to reduce adverse consequences. Preventive measures and mitigatory actions have to be considered before an emergency exposure situation arises. However, once an emergency exposure situation actually arises, exposures can be reduced only by implementing protective actions.
1.20.3.secAn existing exposure situation is a situation of exposure that already exists when a decision on the need for control needs to be taken. Existing exposure situations include situations of exposure to natural background radiation. They also include situations of exposure due to residual radioactive material that derives from past practices that were not subject to regulatory control or that remains after an emergency exposure situation.
1.20.00.secIf an event or a sequence of events that has been considered in the assessment of potential exposure does actually occur, it may be treated either as a planned exposure situation or, if an emergency has been declared, as an emergency exposure situation.
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1.21.secThe descriptions that are given in para. 1.20 of the three types of exposure situation are not always sufficient to determine unequivocally which type of exposure situation applies for particular circumstances. For instance, the transitions from an emergency exposure situation to an existing exposure situation may occur progressively over time; and some exposures due to natural sources may have some characteristics of both planned exposure situations and existing exposure situations. In these Standards, the most appropriate type of exposure situation for particular circumstances has been determined by taking practical considerations into account. For the purposes of these Standards, the exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation is considered under existing exposure situations in Section 5. The exposure of space crew to cosmic radiation presents exceptional circumstances and these are considered separately in Section 5.
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H.1.3.TiDose constraints and reference levels
1.22.secDose constraints and reference levels are used for optimization of protection and safety, the intended outcome of which is that all exposures are controlled to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable, economic, societal and environmental factors being taken into account. Dose constraints are applied to occupational exposure and to public exposure in planned exposure situations. Dose constraints are set separately for each source under control and they serve as boundary conditions in defining the range of options for the purposes of optimization of protection and safety. Dose constraints are not dose limits: exceeding a dose constraint does not represent non-compliance with regulatory requirements, but it could result in follow-up actions.
1.23.secWhile the objectives of the use of dose constraints for controlling occupational exposure and public exposure are similar, the dose constraints are applied in different ways. For occupational exposure, the dose constraint is a tool to be established and used in the optimization of protection and safety by the person or organization responsible for a facility or an activity. For public exposure in planned exposure situations, the government or the regulatory body ensures the establishment or approval of dose constraints, taking into account the characteristics of the site and of the facility or activity, the scenarios for exposure and the views of interested parties. After exposures have occurred, the dose constraint may be used as a benchmark for assessing the suitability of the optimized strategy for protection and safety (referred to as the protection strategy) that has been implemented and for making adjustments as necessary. The setting of the dose constraint needs to be considered in conjunction with other health and safety provisions and the technology available.
1.24.secReference levels are used for optimization of protection and safety in emergency exposure situations and in existing exposure situations. They are established or approved by the government, the regulatory body or another relevant authority. For occupational exposure and public exposure in emergency exposure situations and in existing exposure situations, a reference level serves as a boundary condition in identifying the range of options for the purposes of optimization in implementing protective actions. The reference level represents the level of dose or the level of risk above which it is judged to be inappropriate to plan to allow exposures to occur, and below which the optimization of protection and safety is implemented. The value chosen for the reference level will depend on the prevailing circumstances for the exposures under consideration. The optimized protection strategies are intended to keep doses below the reference level. When an emergency exposure situation has arisen or an existing exposure situation has been identified, actual exposures could be above or below the reference level. The reference level would be used as a benchmark for judging whether further protective actions are necessary and, if so, in prioritizing their application. Optimization of protection and safety is to be applied in emergency exposure situations and in existing exposure situations, even if the doses initially received are below the reference level.
1.25.secThe ICRP recommends a range of doses spanning two orders of magnitude within which the value of a dose constraint or reference level would usually be chosen [2]. At the lower end of this range, the dose constraint or reference level represents an increase, of up to about 1 mSv, over the dose received in a year from exposure due to naturally occurring radiation sources{Foot7}. It would be used when individuals are exposed to radiation from a source that yields little or no benefit for them, but which may benefit society in general. This would be the case, for instance, in establishing dose constraints for public exposure in planned exposure situations.
1.26.secDose constraints or reference levels of 1–20 mSv would be used when the exposure situation — but not necessarily the exposure itself — usually benefits individuals. This would be the case, for instance, when establishing dose constraints for occupational exposure in planned exposure situations or reference levels for exposure of a member of the public in existing exposure situations.
1.27.secReference levels of 20–100 mSv would be used where individuals are exposed to radiation from sources that are not under control or where actions to reduce doses would be disproportionately disruptive. This would be the case, for instance, in establishing reference levels for the residual dose after a nuclear or radiological emergency. Any situation that resulted in a dose of greater than 100 mSv being incurred within a short period of time or in one year would be considered unacceptable, except under the circumstances relating to exposure of emergency workers that are addressed specifically in these Standards.
1.28.0.secThe selection of the value for the dose constraint or the reference level would be based on the characteristics of the exposure situation, including:
1.28.1.sec— The nature of the exposure and the practicability of reducing or preventing the exposure;
1.28.2.sec— The expected benefits of the exposure for individuals and society, or the benefits of avoiding preventive measures or protective actions that would be detrimental to living conditions, as well as other societal criteria relating to the management of the exposure situation;
1.28.3.sec— National or regional factors, together with a consideration of international guidance and good practice elsewhere.
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1.29.secThe system of protection and safety required by these Standards includes criteria for protection against exposure due to radon that are based on the average level of risk to a population with typical but various smoking habits. Owing to the synergistic effects of smoking and exposure due to radon, the absolute risk of lung cancer resulting from unit dose from exposure due to radon for people who are smokers is substantially greater than for those who have never smoked [3, 5, 6]. Information provided to people on the risks associated with exposure due to radon needs to highlight this increased risk for smokers.
1.30.secDose constraints are used in optimization of protection and safety for carers and comforters and for volunteers subject to exposure as part of a programme of biomedical research. Dose constraints are not applicable to the exposure of patients in radiological procedures for the purposes of medical diagnosis or treatment.
1.31.secIn X ray medical imaging, image guided interventional procedures and diagnostic nuclear medicine, a diagnostic reference level is used to indicate the need for an investigation. Periodic assessments are performed of typical doses or activity of the radiopharmaceuticals administered in a medical facility. If comparison with established diagnostic reference levels shows that the typical doses or activity of the radiopharmaceuticals administered are either too high or unusually low, a local review is to be initiated to ascertain whether protection and safety has been optimized and whether any corrective action is required.
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H.1.4.TiProtection of the environment
1.32.secIn a global and long term perspective, protection of people and the environment against radiation risks associated with the operation of facilities and the conduct of activities — and in particular, protection against such risks that may transcend national borders and may persist for long periods of time — is important for achieving equitable and sustainable development.
1.33.secThe system of protection and safety required by these Standards generally provides for appropriate protection of the environment from harmful effects of radiation. Nevertheless, international trends in this field show an increasing awareness of the vulnerability of the environment. Trends also indicate the need to be able to demonstrate (rather than to assume) that the environment is being protected against effects of industrial pollutants, including radionuclides, in a wider range of environmental situations, irrespective of any human connection. This is usually accomplished by means of a prospective environmental assessment to identify impacts on the environment, to define the appropriate criteria for protection of the environment, to assess the impacts and to compare the expected results of the available options for protection. Methods and criteria for such assessments are being developed and will continue to evolve.
1.34.secRadiological impacts in a particular environment constitute only one type of impact and, in most cases, may not be the dominant impacts of a particular facility or activity. Furthermore, the assessment of impacts on the environment needs to be viewed in an integrated manner with other features of the system of protection and safety to establish the requirements applicable to a particular source. Since there are complex interrelations, the approach to the protection of people and the environment is not limited to the prevention of radiological effects on humans and on other species. When establishing regulations, an integrated perspective has to be adopted to ensure the sustainability, now and in the future, of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and tourism, and of the use of natural resources. Such an integrated perspective also has to take into account the need to prevent unauthorized acts with potential consequences for and via the environment, including, for example, the illicit dumping of radioactive material and the abandonment of radiation sources. Consideration also needs to be given to the potential for buildup and accumulation of long lived radionuclides released to the environment.
1.35.secThese Standards are designed to identify the protection of the environment as an issue necessitating assessment, while allowing for flexibility in incorporating into decision making processes the results of environmental assessments that are commensurate with the radiation risks.
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H.1.5.TiInterfaces between safety and security
1.36.secSafety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. In addition, safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner, so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.
1.37.secSecurity infrastructure and safety infrastructure need to be developed, as far as possible, in a well coordinated manner. All the organizations involved need to be made aware of the commonalities and the differences between safety and security so as to be able to factor both into development plans. The synergies between safety and security have to be developed so that safety and security complement and enhance one another.
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H.2.TiOBJECTIVE
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1.38.secThese Standards establish requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources.
H.3.TiSCOPE
1.39.secThese Standards apply for protection against ionizing radiation only, which includes gamma rays, X rays and particles such as beta particles, neutrons, protons, alpha particles and heavier ions. While these Standards do not specifically address the control of non-radiological aspects of health, safety and the environment, these aspects also need to be considered. Protection from harmful effects of non-ionizing radiation is outside the scope of these Standards.
1.40.secThese Standards are intended primarily for use by governments and regulatory bodies. Requirements also apply to principal parties and other parties as specified in Section 2, health authorities, professional bodies and service providers such as technical support organizations.
1.41.secThese Standards do not deal with security measures. The IAEA issues recommendations on nuclear security in the IAEA Nuclear Security Series.
1.42.secThese Standards apply to all situations involving radiation exposure that is amenable to control. Exposures deemed to be not amenable to control are excluded from the scope of these Standards.{Foot8}
1.43.secThese Standards establish requirements to be fulfilled in all facilities and activities giving rise to radiation risks. For certain facilities and activities, such as nuclear installations, radioactive waste management facilities and the transport of radioactive material, other safety requirements, complementary to these Standards, also apply. The IAEA issues Safety Guides to assist in the application of these Standards.
1.44.secThese Standards apply to three categories of exposure: occupational exposure, public exposure and medical exposure.
1.45.0.secThese Standards apply to human activities involving radiation exposure that are:
1.45.1.sec— Carried out in a State which decides to adopt these Standards or which requests any of the Sponsoring Organizations to provide for the application of these Standards;
1.45.2.sec— Undertaken by States with the assistance of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA, the International Labour Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, the United Nations Environment Programme or the World Health Organization, in the light of relevant national rules and regulations;
1.45.3.sec— Carried out by the IAEA or involving the use of materials, services, equipment, facilities and non-published information made available by the IAEA or at its request or under its control or supervision; or
1.45.4.sec— Carried out under any bilateral or multilateral arrangement whereby the parties request the IAEA to provide for the application of these Standards.
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1.46.secQuantities and units used in these Standards are in accordance with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements [7].
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H.4.TiSTRUCTURE
1.47.secThe requirements of these Standards are grouped into requirements applicable for all exposure situations and separate sets of requirements for planned exposure situations, emergency exposure situations and existing exposure situations. For each of the three types of exposure situation, the requirements are further grouped into requirements for occupational exposure, public exposure and (for planned exposure situations only) medical exposure.
1.48.secThe requirements established by these Standards, both numbered ‘overarching’ requirements in bold with titles and other requirements, are expressed as ‘shall’ statements. Each individual overarching requirement is followed by associated requirements.
1.49.secSection 2 sets out the requirements that apply generally for all exposure situations and for all of the three categories of exposure (occupational exposure, public exposure and medical exposure). These requirements include the assignment of responsibilities to the government, the regulatory body, and principal parties and other parties with respect to the implementation of a protection and safety programme and a management system, the promotion of safety culture and the consideration of human factors.
1.50.secSection 3 sets out the requirements — in addition to those of Section 2 — for planned exposure situations. Section 3 includes requirements applicable to all three categories of exposure, requirements for the safety of sources, and separate sets of requirements in respect of occupational exposure, public exposure and medical exposure.
1.51.secSection 4 sets out the requirements — in addition to those of Section 2 — for emergency exposure situations. Section 4 includes requirements in respect of public exposure and occupational exposure (i.e. exposure of emergency workers) in emergency exposure situations. It also includes requirements on the transitions from an emergency exposure situation to an existing exposure situation.
1.52.secSection 5 sets out the requirements — in addition to those of Section 2 — for existing exposure situations. Section 5 includes requirements in respect of public exposure and occupational exposure in existing exposure situations. It includes requirements in respect of remediation of sites and habitation in areas with residual radioactive material, radon in homes and in workplaces, radionuclides in commodities, and exposure of aircrew and of space crew.
1.53.0.secThe organization of the requirements in these Standards for the relevant categories of exposure in each type of exposure situation is as shown in Table 1. General requirements for all exposure situations are given in Section 2, and requirements for different exposure situations are given in Sections 3–5. Thus, for any particular facility or activity, more than one section of these Standards will be relevant, as illustrated by the following examples:
1.53.1.secThe requirements for the regulatory body given in Section 2 are applicable for all exposure situations and all categories of exposure. They provide the regulatory framework within which persons or organizations responsible for facilities and activities have to comply with requirements placed on them. These requirements, thus, establish the general regulatory responsibilities of the regulatory body. Any further requirements on the regulatory body that apply for one type of exposure situation are given in Sections 3–5. These further requirements are in addition to the requirements given in Section 2.
{Table1}
Table1TABLE 1. ORGANIZATION OF THE REQUIREMENTS OF THESE STANDARDS
Occupational exposurePublic exposureMedical exposure
Planned exposure situationsSection 2; Section 3: paras 3.5–3.67 and paras 3.68–3.116Section 2; Section 3: paras 3.5–3.67 and paras 3.117–3.144Section 2; Section 3: paras 3.5–3.67 and paras 3.145–3.185
Emergency exposure situationsSection 2; Section 4Section 2; Section 4Not applicable
Existing exposure situationsSection 2; Section 5Section 2; Section 5Not applicable
1.53.2.secPersons or organizations responsible for a medical facility in which radiation generators or radioactive sources are used are subject to the requirements given in Section 2 for all exposure situations and all categories of exposure, and also to those requirements given in Section 3 that are common to all planned exposure situations (paras 3.5–3.67). In addition, such persons or organizations are subject to the separate requirements given in Section 3 for occupational exposure (such as exposure of medical staff operating medical devices that emit radiation) (paras 3.68–3.116), public exposure (such as exposure in rooms adjacent to rooms containing equipment that generates radiation) (paras 3.117–3.144) and medical exposure (such as exposure of patients) (paras 3.145–3.185).
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1.54.secSchedules I–IV provide numerical values in support of the requirements, covering exemption and clearance, categorization of sealed sources, dose limits for planned exposure situations and criteria for use in emergency preparedness and response.
1.55.secDefinitions of terms used are included in these Standards.
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